Cranial nerves are those nerves which arise from the brain and the brain stem. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves and these pairs of nerves proceed through foramina in the skull.
The 12 cranial nerves according to the sequence from 1 to 12 are
(1) olfactory nerve (which pass from the nasal cavity through to the olfactory bulb)
(2) optic nerve move from the eyes to the thalamus
(3) oculomotor nerve
(4) trochlear nerve
(5) trigeminal nerve
(6) abducens nerve
(7) facial nerve
(8) vestibulocochlear nerve
(9) glossopharengeal nerve
(10) vagus nerve
(11) spinal accessory nerve
(12) hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve 3 to 12 all progress from the brain stem and innervate the head, neck and organs in the thorax and abdomen).
The cranial nerve serves functions such as smell, sight, eye movement & feeling in the face. It also controls swallowing, hearing & balancing