Spinal cord runs almost the full length of the back and is surrounded by the vertebral bodies that foam the spinal column. The central structure of the spinal cord are made up of grey matter and the surrounding tissues are made up of white matter.
Within the spinal cord are 30 segments that belong to 4 sections (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral), based on their location:
(i) Eight cervical segments: These transmit signals from or to areas of the head, neck, shoulders, arms, and hands.
(ii) Twelve thoracic segments: These transmit signals from or to part of the arms and the anterior and posterior chest and abdominal areas.
(iii) Five lumbar segments: These transmit signals from or to the legs and feet and some pelvic organs. (iv) Five sacral segments: These transmit signals from or to the lower back and buttocks, pelvic organs and genital areas, and some areas in the legs and feet. (v) A coccygeal remnant: is located at the bottom of the spinal cord.